Lectin Toxicity - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lectin
>>> Digestion and immune distress
Foods with high concentrations of lectins, such as beans, cereal grains, seeds, nuts, and potatoes
, may be harmful if consumed in excess in uncooked or improperly-cooked form. Adverse effects may include nutritional deficiencies
, and immune (allergic) reactions
. Possibly, most effects of lectins are due to gastrointestinal distress through interaction of the lectins with the epithelial cells of the gut. A recent in vitro study has suggested that the mechanism of lectin damage may occur by interfering with the repair of already-damaged epithelial cells
Lectins are considered another major family of protein antinutrients (ANCs), which are specific sugar-binding proteins exhibiting reversible carbohydrate-binding activities. Lectins are similar to antibodies in their ability to agglutinate red blood cells.
The toxicity of lectins has been identified by consumption of food with high lectin content, which may lead to diarrhea, nausea, bloating, and vomiting.
Many legume seeds have been proven to contain high lectin activity, termed hemagglutinating activity. Soybean
is the most important grain legume crop in this category. Its seeds contain high activity of soybean lectins (soybean agglutinin or SBA). SBA is able to disrupt small intestinal metabolism and damage small intestinal villi
via the ability of lectins to bind with brush border surfaces in the distal part of small intestine.
Heat processing can reduce the toxicity of lectins, but low temperature or insufficient cooking may not completely eliminate their toxicity, as some plant lectins are resistant to heat.
Lectin and leptin resistance
Lectin may cause leptin resistance, affecting its functions (signal have high levels of leptin and several effects gathering to protect from lipid overload), as indicated by studies on effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms on the function of leptin and the leptin receptor. Such leptin resistance may translate into diseases, notably it could be responsible for obesity in humans who have high levels of leptin.
Lectin may involve in pattern recognition and pathogen elimination in the innate immunity of vertebrates including fishes.