Rosetta Genomics Ltd. is a molecular diagnostics company with offices in Israel and the United States that uses micro-ribonucleic acid (microRNA) biomarkers to develop diagnostic tests designed to differentiate between various types of cancer. The company expects the first three tests based on its technology to be submitted for regulatory approval in 2008. The diagnostic tests will differentiate between squamous and non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); differentiate between adenocarcinoma and peritoneal mesothelioma; and seek to identify the origin of tumors in patients representing cancer of unknown primary (CUP). Using a single microRNA, the highly sensitive, highly specific test for squamous and non-squamous lung cancer has passed the prevalidation phase  and has been submitted for approval to the New York State Department of Health Clinical Laboratory Evaluation Program in April 2008.
In April 2008, Nature Biotechnology published a study by Rosetta Genomics’ scientists whose findings demonstrate microRNAs' significant potential to act as effective biomarkers that may be applied in a diagnostic test designed to identify the primary tumor site in patients CUP. In addition to its diagnostic programs, Rosetta Genomics is collaborating with Isis Pharmaceuticals to develop a microRNA-based therapy for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a form of liver cancer.