I cannot speak to specifics, but know a company I was invested in was working with other companies an malaria vaccines that would go to the DOD should soldiers be going into areas where that particular form of malaria was found. Their was no existing vaccine that worked, but full FDA based trials had not been finished.
The same company did sell Homeland Security a substantial amount of vaccines for food and mouth disease for animal protection. The vaccines were then partnered with Merial who was to commercialize them, but it never happened before the company went belly up.
I also know that bone glue was used to set broken bones in the military for battle injuries, it sounds like a great idea, but it never became available to the rest of us, and I don't know if it had problems. I heard about it from an Air Force medic I once worked with and he made it sound great.