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RespireRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. (RSPI)

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Last Post: 3/26/2020 6:35:43 AM - Followers: 169 - Board type: Free - Posts Today: 0

RespireRx Pharmaceuticals (formerly Cortex), is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of novel therapies for the treatment of Sleep Apnea, drug-induced Respiratory Depression, and other brain mediated breathing disorders.  In August 2012, Cortex merged with privately held Pier Pharmaceuticals in an all stock transaction, with Pier becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cortex -

RespireRx website - http://www.respirerx.com/

Clinical Trials -

--- Dronabinol - Phase 2b in Obstructive Sleep Apnea, data due Q4 2016

--- CX-1739 - Phase 2a in Opioid Induced Respiratory Depression, data Sept 12, 2016

--- CX-1739 - Phase 2a in Central Sleep Apnea - planned, pending funding

--- CX-1739 / CX-717 - Phase 2a trials possible in the Respiratory aspects of Pompe Disease, Spinal Cord Injury, Perinatal Respiratory Distress - pending funding

--- CX-717 - Possible combination formulation with Opioids to reduce Respiratory Depression

Preclinical -

--- CX-1942 -
Injectible water soluble prodrug of CX-1763 for intravenous use, targeting Respiratory Depression, approx 5 times more potent than CX-717 in animal models of RD. Preclinical

--- Dronabinol - Extended Release Formulation planned


Summary of Clinical Programs -


Dronabinol -  Targeting Obstructive Sleep Apnea.  

--- Ongoing Phase 2b in Obstructive Sleep Apnea, 120 subjects, dosing 2.5 mg and 10 mg qd for 6 weeks, placebo controlled, data due Q4-16, fully funded $5 mil from the NIH

This program was acquired in the Pier Pharma merger.

Phase 2b enrollment began Dec 2012, with full funding from the NIH (approx $5 mil in NIH funding).  The trial will enroll 120 patients, using two doses of Dronabinol -- a 2.5 mg arm dosing for 6 weeks and a 10 mg arm dosing for 4 weeks after a 2 week dose escalation.  These are similar dosing levels to those that Dronabinol already has FDA approval for in CINV and AIDS anorexia.  Patients will receive Dronabinol 1 hour prior to bedtime. Data due in Q4 2016.  

Dr. Carley (Professor at the Univ of Illinois, and former Chief Science Officer at Pier Pharma) is the principal investigator. Enrollment began Dec 2012 at the Univ of Illinois, and Northwestern Univ will also be participating.  A total of 4 major centers involved in the study.


Dronabinol is a synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring substance in the cannabis plant, namely delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, otherwise known as delta-9 THC. Dronabinol is one of many derivatives found in the cannabis plant which includes other compounds as well such as cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC), to name a few.

Dronabinol is currently FDA approved for use in refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) as well as for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS.  Its use in these two indications is at a dose range of 2.5 mg to 10 mg twices daily.    Cortex acquired the Dronabinol program in its merger with Pier Pharma in Aug 2012, and Dronabinol is being evaluated to see whether a low dose Dronabinol therapy used in a proprietary formulation given daily at bedtime will significantly improve the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as well as other subjective and objective measures of clinical improvement in patients with OSA.

Dronabinol is an orally active cannabinoid which, like other cannabinoids, has complex effects on the central nervous system (CNS), including central sympathomimetic activity. Cannabinoid receptors have been discovered in neural tissues. These receptors may play a role in mediating the effects of dronabinol and other cannabinoids.
The mechanism of action of dronabinol's benefit in OSA is thought to be complex but related to the following dynamics outlined below and in the graphic representation that follows:
  • Peripheral CB1 receptor activation directly inhibits the afferent vagus nerve, and indirectly closes 5-HT3 ion channels (peripheral 5-HT induces apnea, via 5-HT3 receptors), leading to a reduced negative feedback loop on upper airway motor (UAM) tone and activity
    In the CNS, decreased serotonin (central 5-HT excitatory to motor neurons and prevents apnea) and noradrenaline levels during sleep ↓upper airway motor outputs.
    Central CB1 receptor activation results in an ↑ in brainstem monoamine levels, including serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA), leading to ↑ upper airway muscle tone & activity.

Dronabinol Phase 2a results in Obstructive Sleep Apnea -

(This data was presented at the May 2011 meeting of the American Thoracic Society) -

The Phase 2a enrolled 22 patients, dosed for 21 days, with doses escalating from 2.5 mg to 5 mg to 10 mg.  A single dose was given 30 minutes before bedtime.   Statistical improvement in the primary endpoint (AHI -- Apnea-Hypopnea Index) was seen at the 2.5 and 10 mg dose levels, with a reduction in the AHI index score in the moderate-severe sleep apnea patients of approx 30%.  Dronabinol was safe and well-tolerated, with no degradation of sleep architecture. 



AMPAKINES - Allosteric upmodulators of the AMPA receptor

Respiratory -

Opioid Induced Respiratory Depression -

--- Positive Phase 2a data with CX-717

--- Phase 2a with CX-1739 - data Sept 12, 2016

Barbiturate, Propofol, Benzodiazapine Induced Respiratory Depression

Sleep Apnea -

--- Positive Phase 2a data with CX-1739

--- Phase 2a with CX-1739 in Central Sleep Apnea - pending funding

Respiratory aspects of -

Pompe Disease
Spinal Cord Damage
Perinatal Respiratory Distress
Heart Failure Patients 
Sickle Cell Crisis


Ampakines are allosteric, meaning they amplify existing neural signals, rather than creating brand new neural signals as an agonist compound does.  Low Impact type Ampakines upregulate AMPA activity without producing significant BDNF upregulation, while High Impact Ampakines also upregulate production of BDNF and other neural growth factors.   Low and High Impacts bind at different binding sites on the AMPA receptor.  Low impacts are inherently much less prone to inducing excitotoxicity/seizures than high impacts.   In fact, low impacts like CX-717 and CX-1739 are so safe that it wasn't really possible to generate a true MTD - Max Tolerated Dose in Phase 1.         

 Low Impact Ampakines - (do not upregulate BDNF - Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor)

CX-1739 - Approx 3 times more potent than CX-717, halflife 7.2 hours, patent to 2028

Phase 2a completed in Opioid Induced Respiratory Depression - preliminary results Sept 2016 (link below).

Phase 2a completed in Sleep Apnea, with extremely strong results seen in Central type Sleep Apnea, and good activity also seen in Mixed type Sleep Apnea.   CX-1739 can also target ADHD, the cognitive aspects of Schizophrenia, Depression, and all other indications suitable for a low impact Ampakine (ie - where BDNF upregulation isn't a requirement).  CX-1739 is completely free from the preclinical 'artifact' histological phenomenon  that derailed development of CX-717 - 

Sleep Apnea - Phase 2a results (CX-1739) -



Respiratory Depression - Phase 2a preliminary results (CX-1739) -



CX-1942 - Water soluble prodrug of CX-1763 for intravenous use, targeting Respiratory Depression,
approx 5 times more potent than CX-717 in animal models of RD. Preclinical

CX-717 -

Phase 2a completed in Respiratory Depression in which CX-717 demonstrated Ampakine's ability to both prevent and reverse opioid induced Respiratory Depression without diminishing the pain relieving properties of the opioid.   Ampakines have also demonstrated preclinically the ability to reverse barbiturate induced Respiratory Depression, as well as Propofol (and benzodiazepines), clinical areas without current treatments (naloxone/Narcan does not work on barbiturates).   CX-717 also completed a Phase 2a  in ADHD  and showed statistically significant efficacy in both primary endpoints - the hyperactivity and the inattentiveness subscales.  Unlike current stimulant type ADHD drugs, Ampakines do not increase heart rate or blood pressure.  CX-717 also showed good efficacy in reversing the cognitive effects of Sleep Deprivation (UK study) -

Respiratory Depression Phase 2a results (CX-717) - http://www.drugs.com/clinical_trials/cortex-s-ampakine-molecule-cx717-has-positive-opiate-induced-respiratory-depression-phase-iia-5253.html


ADHD Phase 2a results (CX-717) - http://investorshub.advfn.com/boards/read_msg.aspx?message_id=82879930

Sleep Deprivation Phase 2a results (CX-717) (UK study) - cbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1188239/


CX-1763 - Low impact compound, preclinical, the oral version of CX-1942

CX-2076 - Low impact compound, preclinical


High Impact Ampakines - (upregulate BDNF)
While this approach is not actively being advanced by RespireRx at this time, the High Impact type of Ampakines have the ability to upregulate BDNF and other brain growth factors, and therefore high impact Ampakines may have the potential to slow, halt, or even reverse many neurodegenerative diseases.    Cortex's high impacts (Benzamide related) are different chemical families than the high impacts of other companies like Lilly, Glaxo, and Merck (Biarylpropylsulfonamides, Benzothiazides, etc).  In the 2008-2010 period, Cortex also developed and patented multiple new families of improved high impacts which were awaiting funding/partnership.     

CX-1632 - (S-47445) - Phase 1 completed, was targeting Alzheimer's (Servier)

CX-1846 - Was lead in-house high impact, was awaiting IND enabling studies, possibly targeting Parkinson's

CX-1837 - High impact 


Key Press Releases -


Sept 12, 2016 - Preliminary data for CX-1739 Respiratory Depression Phase 2a


Sept 2016 - Reverse split 1 for 325


Dec 2015 - Cortex changes name to RespireRx


Aug 2015 - Dr. James Manuso becomes President and CEO


July 1, 2014 - Cortex enters into a new licensing agreement with Univ of Illinois for use of cannabinoids in the treatment of Sleep Related Breathing Disorders -



Aug 14, 2012 - Cortex announces merger with Pier Pharmaceuticals in an all stock transaction -

Oct 6, 2011 -- Servier Exercises Option to Cortex's Ampakine CX1632, an Innovative Compound in Clinical Development for Alzheimer's Disease  -- http://investorshub.advfn.com/boards/read_msg.aspx?message_id=69802851

Aug 24, 2011 -- Cortex Receives U.S. Patent for the use of Ampakine Molecules to Treat Respiratory Depression -- http://investorshub.advfn.com/boards/read_msg.aspx?message_id=69803347

Apr 26, 2011 -- Cortex Receives Granted US Patent for its Lead AMPAKINE® Molecule CX-1739
-- http://investorshub.advfn.com/boards/read_msg.aspx?message_id=69802247

Mar 16, 2011 -- Cortex Reacquires all Ampakine Compounds, Related Patents and Exclusive Global Rights for Respiratory Depression from Biovail  --  http://investorshub.advfn.com/boards/read_msg.aspx?message_id=69803128

Feb 2, 2011 -- CX-1739 Improves Respiratory Parameters In Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients --http://investorshub.advfn.com/boards/read_msg.aspx?message_id=69802205


Jul 6, 2010 - Funding from The Michael J. Fox Foundation to discover drug candidates for Parkinson's disease -- http://investorshub.advfn.com/boards/read_msg.aspx?message_id=69802108

Aug, 2008 - Cortex's AMPAKINE Molecule CX717 Has Positive Effects in Opiate-Induced Respiratory Depression in a Phase IIa Clinical Study - http://www.drugs.com/clinical_trials/cortex-s-ampakine-molecule-cx717-has-positive-opiate-induced-respiratory-depression-phase-iia-5253.html


Q1-2006 - ADHD Phase 2a results (CX-717) - http://investorshub.advfn.com/boards/read_msg.aspx?message_id=82879930


In addition to Respiratory indications, Ampakines have the potential to address Neuro/Psych areas that range from orphan indications to $1 Billion plus sized markets -

Neuro / Psych - (Not actively being pursued by RespireRx at this time)

Low Impact Ampakines -
ADHD -------------------------------------------------------(positive Phase 2a data with CX-717)

Cognitive aspects of Alzheimer's Disease
Cognitive aspects of Schizophrenia
Cognitive aspects of Parkinson's
Cognitive aspects of Sleep Deprivation ----------(positive Phase 2a data with CX-717 - UK study)
MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment)
Memory Loss due to ECT (Electroconvulsive therapy)
Memory Loss due to CABGS (Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery)
EDS (Excessive Daytime Sleepiness)

High Impact Ampakines - (disease modifying via BDNF upregulation)
Alzheimers Disease
Parkinson's Disease
Huntington's Disease
ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)
Rett's Syndrome
Angelman Syndrome
Fragile X
SCI (Spinal Cord Injury)
TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury)


RespireRx company website:

Dr. Tracy (NI Research / NeuroPerspective) Cortex commentary:

Patent database : Ampa related patents -

Information website for Ampakines (not an official Cortex company website):

Research Paper abstracts for "Ampakines":

SEC Filings -



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RSPI News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 02/12/2020 09:21:16 AM
RSPI News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 02/03/2020 09:11:10 AM
RSPI News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 12/30/2019 09:17:42 AM
RSPI News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 12/18/2019 04:31:03 PM
RSPI News: Quarterly Report (10-q) 11/19/2019 05:05:38 PM
#40089   This company cost me a large fortune.You and Investor2014 03/26/20 06:35:42 AM
#40088   Well there’s the end of that tune. food4thought 03/25/20 05:32:00 PM
#40087   https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/849636/000149315220004599/pre14c.ht Investor2014 03/25/20 05:22:07 PM
#40086   I saw that too. That’s the second food4thought 03/19/20 10:08:06 AM
#40085   Something happening here. I just noticed that we senderos 03/19/20 09:49:00 AM
#40084   Well, RSPI's drugs are not exactly for respiratory senderos 03/16/20 12:21:44 PM
#40083   That is the way I read it. senderos 03/04/20 02:12:29 PM
#40082   That should mean the company expects to find Investor2014 03/04/20 01:15:37 PM
#40081   NEWS RespireRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. Announces Entry into Option Agr senderos 03/04/20 10:24:36 AM
#40080   I hear ya, and I'm with ya. senderos 02/22/20 10:46:48 AM
#40079   Holding since it was Cortex... I'm loyal! BollixMeArse 02/22/20 10:41:16 AM
#40078   The length and detail in that letter was senderos 02/15/20 06:57:29 AM
#40077   Every reason to be optimistic, it could hardly Investor2014 02/15/20 03:05:56 AM
#40076   Whoa. So far, up 9% on about senderos 02/14/20 12:25:03 PM
#40075   I'm optimistic. senderos 02/14/20 10:23:41 AM
#40074   Interesting increase in volume as well. Wouldn’t food4thought 02/14/20 10:14:31 AM
#40073   They should have hired me..... A decade ago I food4thought 02/12/20 03:45:58 PM
#40072   Sounds promising vs where I thought they were. food4thought 02/12/20 03:32:07 PM
#40071   A detailed shareholder's letter out today senderos 02/12/20 12:20:56 PM
#40070   Well, there is some smoke here. Waiting senderos 02/06/20 03:35:03 PM
#40069   I wish someone would tell my portfolio that! food4thought 02/03/20 01:11:26 PM
#40068   https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/849636/000149315220001492/form8-k.htm Investor2014 02/03/20 12:57:53 PM
#40067   I guess this cold be viewed as a senderos 11/06/19 07:25:26 AM
#40066   https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/849636/000149315219016445/form8-k.htm Investor2014 11/06/19 06:47:41 AM
#40065   I agree. We need something positive to senderos 11/04/19 09:06:14 AM
#40064   Interesting that the company again found a bit Investor2014 11/04/19 07:24:15 AM
#40063   Agreed. Good luck to us. There aren’t many food4thought 09/10/19 11:40:36 AM
#40062   Well, IMO, there is something of value here. senderos 09/10/19 09:41:20 AM
#40061   Fingers crossed. At this point it’s a lottery ticket. food4thought 09/10/19 09:39:25 AM
#40060   Since 1996? Holy crap! You have senderos 09/10/19 09:26:28 AM
#40059   I am happy to see some smoke. senderos 09/10/19 09:25:15 AM
#40058   I took a position back in 2014 and Investor2014 09/10/19 08:19:30 AM
#40057   So you’re saying there’s a chance.... Been holding, loading, food4thought 09/10/19 08:17:31 AM
#40056   The old chaps are still alive and trying, Investor2014 09/10/19 07:29:02 AM
#40055   RespireRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. Executives Participating in the 2nd senderos 09/10/19 07:18:02 AM
#40054   https://seekingalpha.com/filing/4603323?app=1#/FORM10-Q_HTM_A_015 Same old. Jus Investor2014 08/14/19 06:05:53 PM
#40053   God I hope so.... food4thought 08/14/19 12:53:51 PM
#40052   Does anyone detect a pulse here? senderos 08/14/19 10:32:40 AM
#40051   Last ditch approach to earn some licensing dollars Investor2014 07/31/19 12:57:24 PM
#40049   https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/849636/000149315219005477/form10-k. Investor2014 04/17/19 04:05:32 AM
#40048   A time machine chance drfreely 04/06/19 11:17:03 AM
#40047   So you’re saying there’s a chance?! food4thought 04/04/19 12:33:28 PM
#40046   Re: Australia. Grasping at straws. This company died drfreely 04/04/19 11:18:44 AM
#40045   https://www.tga.gov.au/form/special-access-scheme Special Access Investor2014 02/26/19 11:52:02 AM
#40044   I don't care about "Hi Doc, we're here. Cincinnatus 02/26/19 09:41:39 AM
#40043   Sorry, I can't help with that. But senderos 02/25/19 05:04:47 PM
#40042   Can anyone supply more information about this Australian Cincinnatus 02/25/19 04:55:20 PM
#40041   I wrote Margolis this question today and he senderos 02/20/19 04:37:41 PM
#40040   Impression Healthcare: “Disrupting the mouthguard market Impression Healthcare Investor2014 02/20/19 01:22:51 PM