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RespireRx Pharmaceuticals Inc. (RSPI)

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Last Post: 4/20/2018 10:57:59 AM - Followers: 169 - Board type: Free - Posts Today: 6

RespireRx Pharmaceuticals (formerly Cortex), is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of novel therapies for the treatment of Sleep Apnea, drug-induced Respiratory Depression, and other brain mediated breathing disorders.  In August 2012, Cortex merged with privately held Pier Pharmaceuticals in an all stock transaction, with Pier becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cortex -

RespireRx website -

Clinical Trials -

--- Dronabinol - Phase 2b in Obstructive Sleep Apnea, data due Q4 2016

--- CX-1739 - Phase 2a in Opioid Induced Respiratory Depression, data Sept 12, 2016

--- CX-1739 - Phase 2a in Central Sleep Apnea - planned, pending funding

--- CX-1739 / CX-717 - Phase 2a trials possible in the Respiratory aspects of Pompe Disease, Spinal Cord Injury, Perinatal Respiratory Distress - pending funding

--- CX-717 - Possible combination formulation with Opioids to reduce Respiratory Depression

Preclinical -

--- CX-1942 -
Injectible water soluble prodrug of CX-1763 for intravenous use, targeting Respiratory Depression, approx 5 times more potent than CX-717 in animal models of RD. Preclinical

--- Dronabinol - Extended Release Formulation planned


Summary of Clinical Programs -


Dronabinol -  Targeting Obstructive Sleep Apnea.  

--- Ongoing Phase 2b in Obstructive Sleep Apnea, 120 subjects, dosing 2.5 mg and 10 mg qd for 6 weeks, placebo controlled, data due Q4-16, fully funded $5 mil from the NIH

This program was acquired in the Pier Pharma merger.

Phase 2b enrollment began Dec 2012, with full funding from the NIH (approx $5 mil in NIH funding).  The trial will enroll 120 patients, using two doses of Dronabinol -- a 2.5 mg arm dosing for 6 weeks and a 10 mg arm dosing for 4 weeks after a 2 week dose escalation.  These are similar dosing levels to those that Dronabinol already has FDA approval for in CINV and AIDS anorexia.  Patients will receive Dronabinol 1 hour prior to bedtime. Data due in Q4 2016.  

Dr. Carley (Professor at the Univ of Illinois, and former Chief Science Officer at Pier Pharma) is the principal investigator. Enrollment began Dec 2012 at the Univ of Illinois, and Northwestern Univ will also be participating.  A total of 4 major centers involved in the study.

Dronabinol is a synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring substance in the cannabis plant, namely delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, otherwise known as delta-9 THC. Dronabinol is one of many derivatives found in the cannabis plant which includes other compounds as well such as cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabichromene (CBC), to name a few.

Dronabinol is currently FDA approved for use in refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) as well as for anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with AIDS.  Its use in these two indications is at a dose range of 2.5 mg to 10 mg twices daily.    Cortex acquired the Dronabinol program in its merger with Pier Pharma in Aug 2012, and Dronabinol is being evaluated to see whether a low dose Dronabinol therapy used in a proprietary formulation given daily at bedtime will significantly improve the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) as well as other subjective and objective measures of clinical improvement in patients with OSA.

Dronabinol is an orally active cannabinoid which, like other cannabinoids, has complex effects on the central nervous system (CNS), including central sympathomimetic activity. Cannabinoid receptors have been discovered in neural tissues. These receptors may play a role in mediating the effects of dronabinol and other cannabinoids.
The mechanism of action of dronabinol's benefit in OSA is thought to be complex but related to the following dynamics outlined below and in the graphic representation that follows:
  • Peripheral CB1 receptor activation directly inhibits the afferent vagus nerve, and indirectly closes 5-HT3 ion channels (peripheral 5-HT induces apnea, via 5-HT3 receptors), leading to a reduced negative feedback loop on upper airway motor (UAM) tone and activity
    In the CNS, decreased serotonin (central 5-HT excitatory to motor neurons and prevents apnea) and noradrenaline levels during sleep ↓upper airway motor outputs.
    Central CB1 receptor activation results in an ↑ in brainstem monoamine levels, including serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA), leading to ↑ upper airway muscle tone & activity.

Dronabinol Phase 2a results in Obstructive Sleep Apnea -

(This data was presented at the May 2011 meeting of the American Thoracic Society) -

The Phase 2a enrolled 22 patients, dosed for 21 days, with doses escalating from 2.5 mg to 5 mg to 10 mg.  A single dose was given 30 minutes before bedtime.   Statistical improvement in the primary endpoint (AHI -- Apnea-Hypopnea Index) was seen at the 2.5 and 10 mg dose levels, with a reduction in the AHI index score in the moderate-severe sleep apnea patients of approx 30%.  Dronabinol was safe and well-tolerated, with no degradation of sleep architecture.


AMPAKINES - Allosteric upmodulators of the AMPA receptor

Respiratory -

Opioid Induced Respiratory Depression -

--- Positive Phase 2a data with CX-717

--- Phase 2a with CX-1739 - data Sept 12, 2016

Barbiturate, Propofol, Benzodiazapine Induced Respiratory Depression

Sleep Apnea -

--- Positive Phase 2a data with CX-1739

--- Phase 2a with CX-1739 in Central Sleep Apnea - pending funding

Respiratory aspects of -

Pompe Disease
Spinal Cord Damage
Perinatal Respiratory Distress
Heart Failure Patients 
Sickle Cell Crisis


Ampakines are allosteric, meaning they amplify existing neural signals, rather than creating brand new neural signals as an agonist compound does.  Low Impact type Ampakines upregulate AMPA activity without producing significant BDNF upregulation, while High Impact Ampakines also upregulate production of BDNF and other neural growth factors.   Low and High Impacts bind at different binding sites on the AMPA receptor.  Low impacts are inherently much less prone to inducing excitotoxicity/seizures than high impacts.   In fact, low impacts like CX-717 and CX-1739 are so safe that it wasn't really possible to generate a true MTD - Max Tolerated Dose in Phase 1.         

 Low Impact Ampakines - (do not upregulate BDNF - Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor)

CX-1739 - Approx 3 times more potent than CX-717, halflife 7.2 hours, patent to 2028

Phase 2a completed in Opioid Induced Respiratory Depression - preliminary results Sept 2016 (link below).

Phase 2a completed in Sleep Apnea, with extremely strong results seen in Central type Sleep Apnea, and good activity also seen in Mixed type Sleep Apnea.   CX-1739 can also target ADHD, the cognitive aspects of Schizophrenia, Depression, and all other indications suitable for a low impact Ampakine (ie - where BDNF upregulation isn't a requirement).  CX-1739 is completely free from the preclinical 'artifact' histological phenomenon  that derailed development of CX-717 - 

Sleep Apnea - Phase 2a results (CX-1739) -

Respiratory Depression - Phase 2a preliminary results (CX-1739) -


CX-1942 - Water soluble prodrug of CX-1763 for intravenous use, targeting Respiratory Depression,
approx 5 times more potent than CX-717 in animal models of RD. Preclinical

CX-717 -

Phase 2a completed in Respiratory Depression in which CX-717 demonstrated Ampakine's ability to both prevent and reverse opioid induced Respiratory Depression without diminishing the pain relieving properties of the opioid.   Ampakines have also demonstrated preclinically the ability to reverse barbiturate induced Respiratory Depression, as well as Propofol (and benzodiazepines), clinical areas without current treatments (naloxone/Narcan does not work on barbiturates).   CX-717 also completed a Phase 2a  in ADHD  and showed statistically significant efficacy in both primary endpoints - the hyperactivity and the inattentiveness subscales.  Unlike current stimulant type ADHD drugs, Ampakines do not increase heart rate or blood pressure.  CX-717 also showed good efficacy in reversing the cognitive effects of Sleep Deprivation (UK study) -

Respiratory Depression Phase 2a results (CX-717) -

ADHD Phase 2a results (CX-717) -

Sleep Deprivation Phase 2a results (CX-717) (UK study) -


CX-1763 - Low impact compound, preclinical, the oral version of CX-1942

CX-2076 - Low impact compound, preclinical


High Impact Ampakines - (upregulate BDNF)
While this approach is not actively being advanced by RespireRx at this time, the High Impact type of Ampakines have the ability to upregulate BDNF and other brain growth factors, and therefore high impact Ampakines may have the potential to slow, halt, or even reverse many neurodegenerative diseases.    Cortex's high impacts (Benzamide related) are different chemical families than the high impacts of other companies like Lilly, Glaxo, and Merck (Biarylpropylsulfonamides, Benzothiazides, etc).  In the 2008-2010 period, Cortex also developed and patented multiple new families of improved high impacts which were awaiting funding/partnership.     

CX-1632 - (S-47445) - Phase 1 completed, was targeting Alzheimer's (Servier)

CX-1846 - Was lead in-house high impact, was awaiting IND enabling studies, possibly targeting Parkinson's

CX-1837 - High impact 


Key Press Releases -


Sept 12, 2016 - Preliminary data for CX-1739 Respiratory Depression Phase 2a

Sept 2016 - Reverse split 1 for 325

Dec 2015 - Cortex changes name to RespireRx

Aug 2015 - Dr. James Manuso becomes President and CEO

July 1, 2014 - Cortex enters into a new licensing agreement with Univ of Illinois for use of cannabinoids in the treatment of Sleep Related Breathing Disorders -

Aug 14, 2012 - Cortex announces merger with Pier Pharmaceuticals in an all stock transaction -

Oct 6, 2011 -- Servier Exercises Option to Cortex's Ampakine CX1632, an Innovative Compound in Clinical Development for Alzheimer's Disease  --

Aug 24, 2011 -- Cortex Receives U.S. Patent for the use of Ampakine Molecules to Treat Respiratory Depression --

Apr 26, 2011 -- Cortex Receives Granted US Patent for its Lead AMPAKINE® Molecule CX-1739

Mar 16, 2011 -- Cortex Reacquires all Ampakine Compounds, Related Patents and Exclusive Global Rights for Respiratory Depression from Biovail  --

Feb 2, 2011 -- CX-1739 Improves Respiratory Parameters In Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients --

Jul 6, 2010 - Funding from The Michael J. Fox Foundation to discover drug candidates for Parkinson's disease --

Aug, 2008 - Cortex's AMPAKINE Molecule CX717 Has Positive Effects in Opiate-Induced Respiratory Depression in a Phase IIa Clinical Study -

Q1-2006 - ADHD Phase 2a results (CX-717) -


In addition to Respiratory indications, Ampakines have the potential to address Neuro/Psych areas that range from orphan indications to $1 Billion plus sized markets -

Neuro / Psych - (Not actively being pursued by RespireRx at this time)

Low Impact Ampakines -
ADHD -------------------------------------------------------(positive Phase 2a data with CX-717)

Cognitive aspects of Alzheimer's Disease
Cognitive aspects of Schizophrenia
Cognitive aspects of Parkinson's
Cognitive aspects of Sleep Deprivation ----------(positive Phase 2a data with CX-717 - UK study)
MCI (Mild Cognitive Impairment)
Memory Loss due to ECT (Electroconvulsive therapy)
Memory Loss due to CABGS (Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery)
EDS (Excessive Daytime Sleepiness)

High Impact Ampakines - (disease modifying via BDNF upregulation)
Alzheimers Disease
Parkinson's Disease
Huntington's Disease
ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)
Rett's Syndrome
Angelman Syndrome
Fragile X
SCI (Spinal Cord Injury)
TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury)


RespireRx company website:

Dr. Tracy (NI Research / NeuroPerspective) Cortex commentary:

Patent database : Ampa related patents -

Information website for Ampakines (not an official Cortex company website):

Research Paper abstracts for "Ampakines":

SEC Filings -



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RSPI News: Annual Report (10-k) 04/17/2018 04:17:48 PM
RSPI News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 04/11/2018 05:16:46 PM
RSPI News: Notification That Annual Report Will Be Submitted Late (nt 10-k) 04/02/2018 04:52:59 PM
RSPI News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 01/08/2018 08:51:40 AM
RSPI News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 01/05/2018 04:17:26 PM
PlusOneCoin Top Posts
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#39956   It is taking a long time. Either no Investor2014 04/20/18 10:57:59 AM
#39955   It would seem that if their products have senderos 04/20/18 10:54:31 AM
#39954   Indeed. Perhaps potential partners will be more willing Investor2014 04/20/18 10:51:27 AM
#39953   It's funding.... They can't do anything without it. Jumpinjackas 04/20/18 08:10:32 AM
#39952   Yesterday's FDA Ad Comm 13-0 vote in Investor2014 04/20/18 07:44:49 AM
#39951   They should have an update soon about FDA Jumpinjackas 04/20/18 06:55:20 AM
#39950   A summary of RSPI's cannabinoid drug trials: senderos 04/17/18 06:07:37 PM
#39949   >>> Marijuana-based drug gets positive review from US gfp927z 04/17/18 05:46:03 PM
#39948   They keep putting their own money in instead Jumpinjackas 04/11/18 10:59:22 PM
#39947   Funny don't hold your breath. Sleep apnea is sparkyone 04/11/18 06:41:55 PM
#39946   Yes, they are playing ship captain crew in sparkyone 04/11/18 06:40:35 PM
#39945   Any clue as to what they are doing? Jumpinjackas 04/08/18 10:31:17 PM
#39944   They still have not talked to FDA yet?... Jumpinjackas 04/03/18 12:18:46 PM
#39943   You know, this company has 400 patents. senderos 03/16/18 09:13:53 AM
#39942   You will have to explain the significance of senderos 03/15/18 03:51:54 PM
#39941   For the now aged CORX folk, AMPA time in2it 03/15/18 02:38:13 PM
#39940   I feel like we are close to a Jumpinjackas 03/13/18 04:24:27 PM
#39939   Well that is good. Don't know where Jascom 03/11/18 11:43:44 PM
#39938   Yea, I found that after I wrote to senderos 03/11/18 06:07:01 PM
#39937   Was involved with ow&p and was the CEO Jascom 03/11/18 05:14:04 PM
#39936   I don't see his name anywhere on their senderos 03/11/18 04:15:56 PM
#39935   Is Jeffery Friedland connected with this RSPI in Jascom 03/11/18 04:13:09 PM
#39934   The big bid finally taken out. I may Jumpinjackas 03/07/18 01:46:57 PM
#39933   Anything going on here.. Anything? Jumpinjackas 03/05/18 04:22:21 PM
#39932   Good point. senderos 02/28/18 08:55:11 PM
#39931   But it's the threat of dilution holding it Jumpinjackas 02/28/18 08:28:11 PM
#39930   agreed apneaous 02/28/18 03:37:59 PM
#39929   Remember that this stock was at $9 a senderos 02/28/18 06:25:24 AM
#39928   Makes me want to buy. How long can Jumpinjackas 02/27/18 01:45:40 PM
#39927   I see we have a bit of a senderos 02/27/18 12:43:23 PM
#39926   You know, with the drugs RSPI has in senderos 02/27/18 05:09:58 AM
#39925   I have a cunning plan, rename the company BollixMeArse 02/26/18 02:34:23 PM
#39924   10x normal volume! senderos 02/26/18 02:10:56 PM
#39923   Well, it is obvious that someone wants RSPI shares. senderos 02/26/18 10:57:36 AM
#39922   This one is getting a little jiggy lately. senderos 02/26/18 09:33:43 AM
#39921   The general has been missing in action for sparkyone 02/15/18 06:25:01 PM
#39920   Trust the management. General Urko's smile is getting bridgrace 02/15/18 01:25:24 PM
#39919   A blast from the past (2016) BollixMeArse 02/15/18 12:47:44 AM
#39918   I have been watching what's left of my sparkyone 02/13/18 04:02:38 PM
#39917   I'd forgotten Dr. Varney ran this trial years drfreely 02/12/18 03:34:13 PM
#39916   Would like to see a trial on the drfreely 02/12/18 03:27:13 PM
#39915   Good day to pick up only if there Jumpinjackas 02/06/18 11:07:32 AM
#39914   One step forward two steps back Jumpinjackas 01/31/18 03:24:45 PM
#39913   A little action here today. Bid is senderos 01/29/18 11:54:50 AM
#39912   sixteen commments below to the Medscape article from apneaous 01/27/18 07:42:55 AM
#39911   Ah, "apneaous" gets the credit. But thanks senderos 01/26/18 06:32:56 AM
#39910   Wasn’t my find, but thanks anyway. Investor2014 01/26/18 06:19:50 AM
#39909   Yes. And good find investor2014! senderos 01/26/18 06:18:33 AM
#39908   Hopefully it aids the process of finding a Investor2014 01/26/18 06:03:47 AM
#39907   Good publicity for RSPI. Great summary of senderos 01/26/18 05:26:35 AM