Moody's Corporation, through its subsidiaries, provides credit ratings and related research, data, and analytical tools; quantitative credit risk measures, risk scoring software, and credit portfolio management solutions; and securities pricing software and valuation models principally in the United States and Europe. The company operates through two segments, MIS and MA. The MIS segment publishes credit ratings on a range of debt obligations, including various corporate and governmental obligations, structured finance securities, and commercial paper programs, as well as the entities that issue such obligations in markets worldwide. This segment provides ratings in approximately 110 countries. Its ratings are disseminated via press releases to the public through a range of print and electronic media, including the Internet and real-time information systems, which is used by securities traders and investors. As of December 31, 2008, MIS had ratings relationships with approximately 13,000 corporate issuers and approximately 26,000 public finance issuers. Additionally, the company rated and monitored ratings on approximately 109,000 structured finance obligations. The MA segment develops a range of products and services that support the credit risk management activities of institutional participants in financial markets. These offerings include quantitative credit risk scores, credit processing software, economic research, analytical models, financial data, securities pricing software, and valuation models, and specialized consulting services. It also distributes investor-oriented research and data, including in-depth research on debt issuers, industry studies, and commentary on topical events developed by MIS as part of its rating process. The company was founded in 1900 and is headquartered in New York, New York.