Dr. Chowrira joined us as Chief Operating Officer in October 2013. Prior to joining us, Dr. Chowrira served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Addex Therapeutics, Inc., a biotechnology company publicly-traded on the SIX Swiss Exchange, from August 2011 to May 2013. Prior to Addex Therapeutics, Inc., he served as Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer at Nektar Therapeutics, or Nektar, a publicly-traded clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, from May 2008 to January 2011, during which time he also served as the chairman of the board of directors of Nektar India PTY Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Nektar. Prior to Nektar, Dr. Chowrira served as the Vice President, Legal and Chief Patent Counsel at Sirna Therapeutics, Inc., a publicly-traded biotechnology company, from June 2003 until its acquisition by Merck & Co., Inc., or Merck, a publicly-traded global health care company, in December 2006, after which he stayed at Merck until May 2008 as Vice President, Sirna and Executive Director, Worldwide Licensing. From 1993 to 2003, Dr. Chowrira held various leadership positions at Sirna Therapeutics, Inc.'s predecessor, Ribozyme Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a publicly-traded biotechnology company. Dr. Chowrira received a JD from the University of Denver—Sturm College of Law, a PhD in Molecular Biology from the University of Vermont College of Medicine, an MS in Molecular Biology from Illinois State University and a BS in Microbiology from the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India.