It is very possible the T/A has no knowledge of this. It is firstly, management's responsibility for the "published" financial statements. Secondly, the CPA should have requested the T/A send the data to the CPA directly.
We don't know the process in how the CPA "compiled" the data for the financials.
In theory, you are correct, T/A data is dynamic and in real time. They know what has been issued by the issuer to the second, they know which shareholder, including DTCC/Cede from clearing firm to clearing firm in real time has been transfered, they also know every transaction in real time.
However, this is not the issue, management and the CPA firm have to vet this information as soon as practicable.