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Axion Power International Inc. (AXPW)

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Last Post: 10/20/2016 10:12:39 PM - Followers: 118 - Board type: Free - Posts Today: 0




Lead-Carbon Energy Storage Device Overview

PbC® Technology

The full technical description of Axion's proprietary


technology is a "multi-celled asymmetrically supercapacitive lead-acid-carbon hybrid battery." Like a lead-acid battery, our battery consists of a series of cells. Within the individual cells, however, our construction is more complex. Where the negative electrodes in lead-acid batteries are simple sponge lead plates, our negative electrodes are five-layer assemblies that consist of a carbon electrode, a corrosion barrier, a current collector, a second corrosion barrier and a second carbon electrode. These electrode assemblies are then sandwiched together with conventional separators and positive electrodes to make our battery, which is filled with an acid electrolyte, sealed and connected in series to the other cells.


We have been testing laboratory prototypes of Axion's


batteries since April 2004. Our test protocol requires a complete charge-discharge cycle every 7 hours to a 90% depth of discharge. During testing, our laboratory prototypes have withstood more than 1,600 cycles before failure. In comparison, most lead-acid batteries designed for deep discharge applications can only survive 300 to 500 cycles under these operating conditions. Based on the work completed during the laboratory development stage, we believe our application specific prototypes will offer several key performance advantages over conventional lead-acid batteries, including:

  • significantly faster recharge rates;
    significantly longer cycle lives in deep discharge applications; and
    minimal required maintenance.

Over five years have been devoted to research and development on various aspects of this technology. Our work has focused on developing our intellectual property, characterizing baseline performance, developing proprietary treatment processes for the activated carbon we use in our electrodes, developing proprietary designs and manufacturing techniques for electrode assemblies and fabricating a series of material and design evaluation prototypes that range from single cell to multi-cell batteries.


PbC® Battery Overview


Technology and Performance & Economics

Conventional lead acid batteries are comprised of two electrodes: a positive electrode made of lead dioxide (PbO2) and a negative electrode made of sponge lead (Pb). Both the lead dioxide and sponge lead materials are pasted onto lead grids that act as the current collector. Two half reactions occur on the electrodes during charge and discharge that are described by the well known double sulphate theory for lead acid batteries:

  • Positive Electrode
    PbO2 + 4H+ + SO42- + 2e- D PbSO4 + 2H2O (+1.685 V)

    Negative Electrode

    Pb + SO42-D PbSO4 + 2e- (-0.365 V)


  • Overall Reaction
    PbO2 + 2H2SO4 + PbD 2PbSO4 + 2H2O (+2.050 V)

The PbC® battery is a hybrid device that uses the standard lead acid battery positive electrode and a supercapacitor negative electrode that is made of activated carbon.  The specific type of activated carbon we use has an extremely high surface area (1500 m2/g) and has been specifically formulated by Axion for use in electrochemical applications. During charge and discharge, the positive electrode undergoes the same chemical reaction that occurs in a conventional lead acid battery, i.e. lead dioxide reacts with acid and sulphate ions to form lead sulphate and water.  The main difference in the PbC® battery is the replacement of the lead negative electrode with an activated carbon electrode that does not undergo a chemical reaction at all.  Instead, the very high surface area activated carbon electrode stores the protons (H+) from the acid in a layer on the surface of the electrode. This new negative half reaction can be written as the following:

  • Negative Electrode in the PbC® battery technology
    nC6x-(H+)x  D nC6(x-2)-.(H+)x-2 + 2H+ + 2e- (discharged)

In conventional lead acid batteries the concentration of acid changes from being very concentrated in the charged state to somewhat dilute in the discharged state as the acid is converted to water.  In contrast, the PbC® battery stores H+ in the negative electrode in the fully charges state which move to the positive electrode during discharge where they are neutralized to form water.  The result is reduced acid concentration swings from the charged to discharged state which reduces grid corrosion on the positive electrode and leads to longer life of the positive electrode.


Is Axion a possible take over target?


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Current Price
Bid Ask Day's Range
AXPW News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 10/17/2016 04:33:53 PM
AXPW News: Proxy Statement (definitive) (def 14a) 10/17/2016 04:32:29 PM
AXPW News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 10/13/2016 04:31:25 PM
AXPW News: Proxy Statement - Notice of Shareholders Meeting (preliminary) (pre 14a) 10/06/2016 04:32:13 PM
AXPW News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 09/27/2016 04:32:19 PM
#4154   I think the mad hatter has just gone yman 10/20/16 10:12:39 PM
#4153   And by the way that list has like samiam420 10/20/16 10:02:18 PM
#4152   Lol ok whatever aidytrader 10/20/16 10:02:15 PM
#4151   Dude do ur research. It's in there. I'm samiam420 10/20/16 10:01:41 PM
#4150   A former director of Axpw is mentioned in aidytrader 10/20/16 10:00:51 PM
#4149   I think someone may have been pulling ur aidytrader 10/20/16 09:56:29 PM
#4148   Guys just forget I said anything. The samiam420 10/20/16 09:44:18 PM
#4147   If u r still in what stopped the TrendTrade2016 10/20/16 07:03:29 PM
#4146   Where exactly on wiki leaks is it. The aidytrader 10/20/16 06:49:22 PM
#4145   A realistic share price today is .10 cents. yman 10/20/16 05:36:06 PM
#4144   That would be nice. Need a lot MrLucky 10/20/16 03:53:13 PM
#4143   How about 20 to 30 cent scottieone 10/20/16 03:45:28 PM
#4142   How about .05? MrLucky 10/20/16 03:40:07 PM
#4141   Going way higher than 013 scottieone 10/20/16 03:38:18 PM
#4140   would have liked higher but all out at TrendTrade2016 10/20/16 01:34:46 PM
#4139   Someone knows something. I see this going yman 10/20/16 01:30:21 PM
#4138   Big bidders now stepping up! short squeeze! TrendTrade2016 10/20/16 01:18:11 PM
#4137   Here we go. MM games over! outside $$ TrendTrade2016 10/20/16 12:54:47 PM
#4136   I won't post the list or link. samiam420 10/20/16 12:35:07 PM
#4135   they have to vote first. follow the money TrendTrade2016 10/20/16 10:23:51 AM
#4134   "Anytime before june 2017" GoodWill 10/20/16 10:23:00 AM
#4133   R/S is not going to happen today or TrendTrade2016 10/20/16 10:22:26 AM
#4132   Niice, more up trend before rs so? GoodWill 10/20/16 10:20:31 AM
#4131   better than most stocks under a cent for TrendTrade2016 10/20/16 10:18:29 AM
#4130   Nice one, called that bounce too GoodWill 10/20/16 10:14:13 AM
#4129   Can't find it?? you have a site link pls? Dutchieboy 10/20/16 09:57:59 AM
#4128   sam do you have a link to that list scottieone 10/20/16 07:50:16 AM
#4127   That's it my friends. Go on wikileaks and samiam420 10/19/16 08:10:26 PM
#4126   THATS BS - How does a fear of buckmaster6985 10/19/16 04:52:16 PM
#4125   Yep, I didn't have the guts to average MrLucky 10/19/16 03:34:07 PM
#4124   R/S by a ratio of no less threewheeler 10/19/16 03:28:22 PM
#4123   loaded .oo3's. the way you play this game TrendTrade2016 10/19/16 03:28:17 PM
#4122   $30,000 worth of stock trading hands at 7.2mil volume buckmaster6985 10/19/16 03:23:55 PM
#4121   Seems strange aidytrader 10/19/16 02:11:08 PM
#4120   No idea saj 10/19/16 02:10:11 PM
#4119   Why is this up today? Seems strange on aidytrader 10/19/16 02:09:22 PM
#4118   up 78% today saj 10/19/16 01:43:27 PM
#4117   R/S is never a good idea. blackhound 10/19/16 03:30:07 AM
#4115   This filing means trouble for AXPW buckmaster6985 10/18/16 12:04:18 PM
#4114   And the scam continues. Who in their right buckmaster6985 10/18/16 09:17:53 AM
#4113   Another R/S coming brunners 10/18/16 08:12:50 AM
#4112   Another RS WTF ? MADDSTACKER 10/17/16 04:35:18 PM
#4111   Not good AXPW $.0027 -18.18% buckmaster6985 10/17/16 11:56:05 AM
#4110   Number of shares for monies AXPW raises drastically Truth_Hunting 10/14/16 08:59:55 PM
#4109   They added another 21 million shares Vivavegan 10/14/16 05:04:25 PM
#4108   That didn't last long AXPW $.0030 -18.92% buckmaster6985 10/14/16 01:16:03 PM
#4107   The kind of action that AXPW is showing blackhound 10/14/16 01:11:09 AM
#4106   Based on research the axpw battery is ideal jzmak 10/13/16 07:54:29 PM
#4105   All u have to do is look at Vivavegan 10/13/16 04:23:23 PM
#4104   No one said the deal is dead again? jzmak 10/13/16 04:17:09 PM