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Axion Power International Inc. (AXPW)

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Lead-Carbon Energy Storage Device Overview

PbC® Technology

The full technical description of Axion's proprietary


technology is a "multi-celled asymmetrically supercapacitive lead-acid-carbon hybrid battery." Like a lead-acid battery, our battery consists of a series of cells. Within the individual cells, however, our construction is more complex. Where the negative electrodes in lead-acid batteries are simple sponge lead plates, our negative electrodes are five-layer assemblies that consist of a carbon electrode, a corrosion barrier, a current collector, a second corrosion barrier and a second carbon electrode. These electrode assemblies are then sandwiched together with conventional separators and positive electrodes to make our battery, which is filled with an acid electrolyte, sealed and connected in series to the other cells.


We have been testing laboratory prototypes of Axion's


batteries since April 2004. Our test protocol requires a complete charge-discharge cycle every 7 hours to a 90% depth of discharge. During testing, our laboratory prototypes have withstood more than 1,600 cycles before failure. In comparison, most lead-acid batteries designed for deep discharge applications can only survive 300 to 500 cycles under these operating conditions. Based on the work completed during the laboratory development stage, we believe our application specific prototypes will offer several key performance advantages over conventional lead-acid batteries, including:

  • significantly faster recharge rates;
    significantly longer cycle lives in deep discharge applications; and
    minimal required maintenance.

Over five years have been devoted to research and development on various aspects of this technology. Our work has focused on developing our intellectual property, characterizing baseline performance, developing proprietary treatment processes for the activated carbon we use in our electrodes, developing proprietary designs and manufacturing techniques for electrode assemblies and fabricating a series of material and design evaluation prototypes that range from single cell to multi-cell batteries.


PbC® Battery Overview


Technology and Performance & Economics

Conventional lead acid batteries are comprised of two electrodes: a positive electrode made of lead dioxide (PbO2) and a negative electrode made of sponge lead (Pb). Both the lead dioxide and sponge lead materials are pasted onto lead grids that act as the current collector. Two half reactions occur on the electrodes during charge and discharge that are described by the well known double sulphate theory for lead acid batteries:

  • Positive Electrode
    PbO2 + 4H+ + SO42- + 2e- D PbSO4 + 2H2O (+1.685 V)

    Negative Electrode

    Pb + SO42-D PbSO4 + 2e- (-0.365 V)


  • Overall Reaction
    PbO2 + 2H2SO4 + PbD 2PbSO4 + 2H2O (+2.050 V)

The PbC® battery is a hybrid device that uses the standard lead acid battery positive electrode and a supercapacitor negative electrode that is made of activated carbon.  The specific type of activated carbon we use has an extremely high surface area (1500 m2/g) and has been specifically formulated by Axion for use in electrochemical applications. During charge and discharge, the positive electrode undergoes the same chemical reaction that occurs in a conventional lead acid battery, i.e. lead dioxide reacts with acid and sulphate ions to form lead sulphate and water.  The main difference in the PbC® battery is the replacement of the lead negative electrode with an activated carbon electrode that does not undergo a chemical reaction at all.  Instead, the very high surface area activated carbon electrode stores the protons (H+) from the acid in a layer on the surface of the electrode. This new negative half reaction can be written as the following:

  • Negative Electrode in the PbC® battery technology
    nC6x-(H+)x  D nC6(x-2)-.(H+)x-2 + 2H+ + 2e- (discharged)

In conventional lead acid batteries the concentration of acid changes from being very concentrated in the charged state to somewhat dilute in the discharged state as the acid is converted to water.  In contrast, the PbC® battery stores H+ in the negative electrode in the fully charges state which move to the positive electrode during discharge where they are neutralized to form water.  The result is reduced acid concentration swings from the charged to discharged state which reduces grid corrosion on the positive electrode and leads to longer life of the positive electrode.


The first of its kind , PbC lead carbon bi polar battery on display at The Battery Show in Novi Michigan at the Advanced Battery Concepts booth! Look for new battery technology developments from Axion Power and Advanced Battery Concepts !

Sept 12th 2016

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----------------------- MAJOR UPDATES - November 2016  ------------------------

For the last year, Axion has been working very hard to secure a partnership which would transform its patients. During 2016 Axion, re shifted its orgin from manufactoring to licensing of there current PbC patients. Axion currently owns 15 patients and have recently added two during the first part of Sept 2016.  Axion also owns 5 international patents !

Axion Power International, Inc. has recently entered into a Tri-Party Letter of Intent with Fengfan Co. Ltd. of Baoding, China and LCB International Inc. of BVI, regarding the sale of Axion's PbC® technology in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau to Fengfan and LCB, along with non-exclusive licensing rights in North America. These rights also include a 2% royalty to Axion Power, and a $5 Million dollar pay out in 24 months. As of Oct 31st the agreement has been signed and the first intital down payment to Axion will begin Dec 2016.

This is the position Axion has been seeking for several months, it allows them to take there patient to China where it will be manufactored and set up in an established market. Part of why Axion has struggled is because of the attempt to manufactor these batteries. Now after the restructure and reoganziation, Axion's partnership with FengFan Co will become a leading provider in China for Lead Batteries which already has a very well established market . Not only will FengFan's partnership allow royalties it also sets up additional sales and revenue for Axion. LCB International has been a key component in finalizing the established deal . 

Updates to there products,

dont forget the power cube... 

The PowerCubeTM , our highly customizable PbC? Battery energy storage system, delivers dispatchable power for many applications. Axion Power can customize the PowerCubeTM to fit specified energy storage and usage needs ranging from 100kW containers to multiple MW commercial building units. Configurations are available in building blocks of 100kW, 500kW, and 1.25MW. Custom-racking systems hold batteries securely, and seismic racks are available to absorb vibration and prevent movement.

Our PbC? Batteries Inside Your PowerCube™ 

PbC® Batteries offer many features that make them ideal for commercial energy storage and grid support applications which include:
• Long Cycle Life: ability to provide approximately 3,000 100% DOD cycles, PbC® Batteries provide many years of service for commercial applications resulting in a lower lifetime cost per kWh.
• Faster Recharge, reducing downtime and maximizing use of the renewable power source. 
• Ability to operate in a partial state of charge (PSOC) without reducing lifetime- pertinent in applications such as frequency regulation or renewable buffering and smoothing
• Maintenance Free: AGM sealed, non spillable, self equalizing state of charge even in large strings, overall lower cost to owner

Residential Energy Storage

  • A powerful residential system harnessing our innovative technology to provide better, greener energy storage solutions.

As energy bills are rising and the need to provide green solutions increases, Axion Power’s engineers have created a powerful residential energy storage solution that is customizable to meet the specifc energy needs of the homeowner. Using a 7kWh* base model cabinet, we provide ranges from 7kWh to 28kWh of stored energy. Manage peak loads, maximize consumption of stored energy and easily integrate into your existing solar panels all with ease, quality and reliability. In the event of a power outage, the Axion Power system can combine with solar to form a micro-grid, right inside the owner’s home.

Systems available offering: Energy Rating of 7kWh - 28kWh Power Capability ranging from 4kW - 8kW State-of-the-art seismic rated industrial cabinets

Why PbC? Batteries for Residential Energy Storage? PbC® Batteries offer many features that make them ideal for residential energy storage applications including: 
• Long Cycle Life- ability to provide approximately 5,000 65% DOD cycles (with standard residential configuration) providing over 10 years of service resulting in a lower lifetime cost per kWh. 
• Warranty-Backed: five-year full and five-year pro-rated when used in our residential systems 
• Faster Recharge- quickly accept available solar energy maximizing system’s availability to provide power when needed 
• Ability to Operate in a Partial State of Charge (PSOC)- In off-grid systems weather can reduce solar energy availability, PbC® batteries can operate in PSOC without reducing lifetime. 
• Maintenance Free: AGM sealed, non spillable and reliable, providing renewable energy storage for many years at an overall low cost of ownership

Off-Grid Lighting & Small Remote Power

  • By combining solar panels with our PbC? Batteries we offer a cost effective, green, outdoor energy solution.

By combining a low voltage high efficiency LED light, a solar panel and two PbC? Batteries we offer a cost effective, green, outdoor lighting solution. An energy-saving alternative for use as non-essential lighting, these solar lights will turn on at dusk and provide reliable lighting until dawn. During daylight hours, the system naturally collects solar energy, recharging PbC® Batteries for the the next night’s use.

This system is self-sustaining and does not require a grid power source. The stand-alone light is ideal for construction sites, buildings striving for LEED certification, commercial parking lots, parks or even residential communities looking to reduce their energy consumption. In addition, since this system works on stored solar power, it can be configured for use as needed - during specified hours, power outages or severe weather events - making it a more reliable system for areas susceptible to power outages.

The same power supply can be applied to remote monitoring or security applications to provide power for gas well monitoring, remote seismic sensors, weather stations, security cameras or sensors, motion lights or other monitoring equipment in remote off grid areas.

Why PbC? Batteries for Off-Grid Lighting? 
PbC® Batteries offer many features that make them ideal for off-grid solar lighting or remote telemetry applications including:
• Long Cycle Life- ability to provide up to 10+ years of worry-free lighting. 
• Faster Recharge- quickly accept available solar energy to store for night time lighting
• Ability to Operate in a Partial State of Charge (PSOC)- Weather may reduce solar energy availability, PbC® batteries can operate in PSOC without reducing lifetime. 
• Maintenance Free: AGM sealed, non spillable and reliable, providing solar powered lighting for many years

Our off grid power supplies can be customized for a variety of lighting applications and also can be used for remote monitoring or telemetry applications. Contact us for custom options for your lighting or remote power needs.

Military Applications

As the U.S. Armed Forces strive to reduce energy consumption, lead the way in green practices and make our country secure by becoming energy independent, Axion Power can provide the technology to help them achieve these goals. Axion PbC® Batteries and energy storage systems can be customized to fulfill the stringent needs of the military. Using proprietary PbC? Technology, we can provide containerized PowerCube™ energy storage units offering a reliable micro-grid ranging from 100kW to 1.25MW. Our energy storage systems can also be customized to be installed in a traditional building. Custom battery racking systems can be designed to secure various numbers of battery strings and can include seismic rated braces to prevent movement of stored PbC? Batteries.

In addition to energy storage, PbC® Batteries can be used for portable power solutions, genset ramp rate control, renewable buffering and smoothing, remote monitoring, communications and a variety of other military applications.

The unique features of the PbC® Battery offer many advantages desired by the military and the defense industry that include:
• Long Cycle Life- approximately 3,000 100% DOD cycles providing longevity, resulting in a lower lifetime cost per kWh
• Faster Recharge- quickly accept available renewable energy maximizing system’s availability to provide power when needed, reducing genset run times
• Excels in a Partial State of Charge (PSOC)- Weather can reduce renewable energy availability, PbC? Batteries operate in PSOC without reducing lifetime, ideal for off-grid applications
• Maintenance Free: AGM sealed, non spillable, reliable, self equalizing state of charge even in large strings, overall lower cost to the organization

• Wide operating temperature range- Operate through a wide temperature range from -20 to 50 C


Testing being done in Europe

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Current Price
Bid Ask Day's Range
AXPW News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 12/22/2016 08:31:36 AM
AXPW News: Quarterly Report (10-q) 11/15/2016 06:25:09 AM
AXPW News: Additional Proxy Soliciting Materials (definitive) (defa14a) 11/14/2016 08:08:07 AM
AXPW News: Current Report Filing (8-k) 10/17/2016 04:33:53 PM
AXPW News: Proxy Statement (definitive) (def 14a) 10/17/2016 04:32:29 PM
#4636   Just to let you know, 95% of the Train9999 02/24/17 09:22:19 PM
#4635   Yeah it's called Propaganda. buckmaster6985 02/23/17 01:31:13 PM
#4634   thought this was an interesting article some dd adub17 02/23/17 10:06:35 AM
#4633   here are a couple of articles relating to adub17 02/23/17 10:04:32 AM
#4632   has anyone noticed the advanced battery concepts article adub17 02/23/17 09:48:24 AM
#4631   It's all propaganda. The pushers buy when the buckmaster6985 02/21/17 04:47:16 PM
#4630   Just a few of these type articles popping up... MrLucky 02/21/17 11:35:15 AM
#4629   Up almost 20% this morning with almost 500k Catch_22 02/21/17 11:19:02 AM
#4628   Hoping for a positive mood and direction. still optimistic. blackhound 02/19/17 09:22:44 PM
#4627   If AXPW told you the stock would tank. buckmaster6985 02/17/17 03:13:38 PM
#4626   I'm expecting a really crazy excuse this time, MrLucky 02/17/17 11:04:05 AM
#4625   My thoughts exactly. Has anyone talked to Catch_22 02/17/17 10:35:45 AM
#4624   OK, AXPW, you are running out of February. MrLucky 02/17/17 10:21:55 AM
#4623   Agreed, some big move soon. This is stripsackmiller 02/15/17 02:12:09 PM
#4622   Only $816 worth of stock traded hands by buckmaster6985 02/15/17 12:16:35 PM
#4621   I'm loading up at this price and hoping RichTMoney 02/14/17 01:20:36 PM
#4620   only 51K shares traded by lunch. where are buckmaster6985 02/14/17 12:13:35 PM
#4619   Gobblin up all the $0.011s that I can. Delicious. stripsackmiller 02/14/17 11:52:36 AM
#4618   Ugh Oh AXPW @ $.0110 -0.0015 -12.00% buckmaster6985 02/14/17 10:28:11 AM
#4617   I don't have any cash right now and MrLucky 02/13/17 12:29:48 PM
#4616   If you have some money and you don't buckmaster6985 02/13/17 12:26:23 PM
#4615   If you have some cash and you believe MrLucky 02/13/17 12:21:39 PM
#4614   Unfortunately, the next news we get will probably MrLucky 02/13/17 11:19:37 AM
#4613   Is there some news no one knows about? Catch_22 02/13/17 10:31:17 AM
#4612   Uhg Oh AXPW $.0100 ?-0.0025 -20.00% buckmaster6985 02/13/17 10:28:22 AM
#4611   Somebody better start buying or we'll need sub-penny power. MrLucky 02/13/17 10:15:17 AM
#4610   Someone NEEDS to unleash some penny power. blackhound 02/13/17 12:28:37 AM
#4609   Another article mentioning AXPW. Wonder if they MrLucky 02/08/17 10:55:00 AM
#4608   Waiting to see what happens with Mr. China MrLucky 02/08/17 10:42:22 AM
#4607   ugh oh. back down to $.011 buckmaster6985 02/08/17 10:36:24 AM
#4606   AXPW must have some real tight security, no MrLucky 02/07/17 02:05:08 PM
#4605   stretching the leg up! blackhound 02/06/17 09:28:46 PM
#4604   Expecting a big week. News of China deal RichTMoney 02/06/17 09:17:15 AM
#4603   You would think there might be some kind 3LEGGEDKNIGHT 02/02/17 08:45:31 PM
#4602   Loading up at this price. Expect February to RichTMoney 02/02/17 06:50:58 PM
#4601   I don't have free cash right now, but MrLucky 02/02/17 03:43:10 PM
#4600   "buy" buckmaster6985 02/02/17 02:56:56 PM
#4599   uh oh down to $.011. Do you guy buckmaster6985 02/02/17 02:56:38 PM
#4598   Drifting lower as we wait for that slow MrLucky 02/02/17 02:25:28 PM
#4597   OUCH' 3LEGGEDKNIGHT 02/01/17 07:24:31 PM
#4596   hammertime!!! Time to make some more money! blackhound 01/31/17 09:05:39 PM
#4595   I'm looking forward to when they announce the Catch_22 01/30/17 03:26:13 PM
#4594   The next couple of weeks will be big. RichTMoney 01/30/17 03:01:20 PM
#4593   That was probably insider buying. MrLucky 01/30/17 11:10:23 AM
#4592   Really lighting up the trading desks this morning. Catch_22 01/30/17 10:59:56 AM
#4591   Destroyed normal AGM or GEL batteries. 3LEGGEDKNIGHT 01/28/17 11:19:47 PM
#4590   Agree this tech is proven and strategy of RichTMoney 01/27/17 04:02:25 PM
#4589   If I own a battery co and someone 3LEGGEDKNIGHT 01/27/17 01:41:29 PM
#4588   Yes, if Mr. China can get his hall MrLucky 01/27/17 12:11:24 PM
#4586   I work for a major trucking company and Vivavegan 01/27/17 10:20:41 AM